The COVID-19 pandemic is unlikely to end until there is global roll-out of vaccines that protect against severe
disease and preferably drive herd immunity. Regulators in numerous countries have authorised or approved
COVID-19 vaccines for human use, with more expected to be licensed in 2021. Yet having licensed vaccines is not
enough to achieve global control of COVID-19: they also need to be produced at scale, priced affordably, allocated
globally so that they are available where needed, and widely deployed in local communities. In this
Health Policy paper, we review potential challenges to success in each of these dimensions and discuss policy
implications. To guide our review, we developed a dashboard to highlight key characteristics of 26 leading vaccine
candidates, including efficacy levels, dosing regimens, storage requirements, prices, production capacities in 2021,
and stocks reserved for low-income and middle-income countries. We use a traffic-light system to signal the
potential contributions of each candidate to achieving global vaccine immunity, highlighting important trade-offs
that policy makers need to consider when developing and implementing vaccination programmes. Although
specific datapoints are subject to change as the pandemic response progresses, the dashboard will continue to
provide a useful lens through which to analyse the key issues affecting the use of COVID-19 vaccines. We also
present original data from a 32-country survey (n=26 758) on potential acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, conducted
from October to December, 2020. Vaccine acceptance was highest in Vietnam (98%), India (91%), China (91%),
Denmark (87%), and South Korea (87%), and lowest in Serbia (38%), Croatia (41%), France (44%), Lebanon (44%),
and Paraguay (51%).

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